The Khmer language is written with the Khmer script, an Indic-based alphasyllabary. There are many methods to romanise the Khmer script; the most common schemes are the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) scheme, the Geographic Department scheme which is based on the UNGEGN scheme, the BGN/PCGN scheme and the ALA-LC scheme. All of these schemes use a mix of transcription and transliteration principles (with different proportions of mixing), and as a consequence it is appreciably difficult to algorithmically generate these romanisations in an accurate manner. Monolingual Khmer dictionaries, such as the renowned Chuon Nath Dictionary, traditionally make use of ‘respellings’ to indicate irregularities in pronunciations in a fashion similar to Thai dictionaries, though the use of respellings is not as consistent. The following will attempt to introduce the intricacies of the Khmer script and the romanisations.
- a-series = 1st class; o-series = 2nd class.
- Note that the combination of diacritics may not be displayed as desired; please consult the column of examples.
- Note that words spelt with independent vowels should always have respellings in entries, for example ឩកា (ŭka) should be respelt as អ៊ូកា.
- Also note that the independent vowel ឣ (â) is different from the consonant sign អ (ʼɑɑ). On Wiktionary, only the latter should be used in entries.
|ឱ, ឲ||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T||/ʔaːo/|
|ំ||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (និគ្គហិត)||niggahita; nasalizes the inherent vowels and some of the dependent vowels, see anusvara, sometimes used to represent [aɲ] in Sanskrit loanwords|
|ះ||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (រះមុខ)||"shining face"; adds final aspiration to dependent or inherent vowels, usually omitted, corresponds to the visarga diacritic, it maybe included as dependent vowel symbol|
|ៈ||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (យុគលពិន្ទុ)||yugala bindu ("pair of dots"); adds final glottalness to dependent or inherent vowels, usually omitted|
|( ៉)||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (មូសិកទន្ត)||mūsikadanta ("mouse teeth"); used to convert some o-series consonants to the a-series|
|៊||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (ត្រីសព្ទ)||trīsabda; used to convert some a-series consonants to the o-series|
|ុ||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (ក្បៀសក្រោម)||also known as bok cəəng (បុកជើង); used in place when the diacritics trəysap and muusekaʾtŏən impede with superscript vowels|
|់||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (បន្តក់)||used to shorten some vowels|
|៌||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (របាទ)
|rapāda, repha; behave similarly to the tŏəndĕəʾkhiət, corresponds to the Devanagari diacritic repha, however it lost its original function which was to represent a vocalic "r"|
|៍||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (ទណ្ឌឃាដ)||daṇḍaghāta; used to render some letters as unpronounced|
|៎||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (កាកបាទ)||kākapāda ("crow's foot"); more a punctuation mark than a diacritic; used in writing to indicate the rising intonation of an exclamation or interjection; often placed on grammatical particles such as /na/, /nɑː/, /nɛː/, /vəːj/, and the feminine response /cah/|
|៏||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (អស្តា)||denotes stressed intonation in some single-consonant words|
|័||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (សំយោគសញ្ញា)||represents a short inherent vowel in Sanskrit and Pali words; usually omitted|
|៑||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (វិរាម)||a mostly obsolete diacritic, corresponds to the virāma|
|្||ទំព័រគំរូ:WT:KM TR/T (ជើង)||a.w. coeng; a sign developed by Unicode to input subscript consonants, appearance of this sign varies among fonts|